The Draper Duplexes

     This page starts with a few paragraphs on Draper housing from John Gardner's Model Company Town.
    Following that is a section from the National Register Nomination by Kathy Kelly Broomer. The NRN was
    written as part of the process of establishing the Hopedale Historic District. Probably most readers
    wouldn't go through it word for word, but you might like to skim it, looking for houses of interest. This
    section doesn't mention all of the houses in the district, but quite a few are here. In another part of the
    NRN, all of the houses are listed, along with a little information on their architectural style and the year in
    which they were built. If there is a house you'd like to know more about and can't find it here, you can see
    the NRN at the Bancroft Library, or email me (link on homepage) and I'll get the information to you.

                                                                       Model Company Town
                                                                           By John S. Garner

     The Draper Company made an announcement concerning its housing in November 1904:

      We are informed that the Superior Jury of the St. Louis Exposition have [sic] awarded us a gold medal
    for exhibit in Class 136, referring to the housing of workmen. Visitors to Hopedale have frequently
    commented on the superior houses furnished by our company for its help. We believe in making our town
    as attractive as possible as a matter of good business policy, since we are anxious to retain the services
    of high class labor.

      In addition to receiving a gold medal for their housing exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the
    company previously had earned a silver medal at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Other gold medals would
    be awarded at Liege in 1905 and Milan in 1906. That Hopedale received these international awards is
    revealing because the Drapers never sought public attention for their town or crusaded for housing
    reform. They did not build model houses to rectify existing conditions among their workers. Rather, theirs
    was simply a business proposition; good homes attract good workers and keep them healthy and
    content. This sensible and pragmatic attitude toward housing was not the result of a redirection in policy
    or new initiative but had been active since operations began.

     The first company houses built by Drapers were placed along the northern end of Hopedale Street in
    1857. From that date forward the number increased through periodic building campaigns taken between
    1868 and 1874, throughout the 1880s, and again between 1896 and 1915. Aside from three
    boardinghouses, constructed primarily for single men, and a dozen or so single-family houses for
    managers, located mostly along Dutcher Street, all were double-family in type. Each apartment occupied
    half of a symmetrical dwelling.

     Double-family houses had several advantages over single-family houses or multifamily tenements.
    Offering greater exterior volume that a detached house, they avoided appearing too small, though they
    reduced per unit construction costs and development area. As opposed to larger tenements, they
    conformed to an existing residential scale consistent with houses established by the earlier community.
    They also represented a smaller replacement liability if seriously damaged or destroyed by fire, and they
    appealed to families more than row houses or elevated flats because each unit had cross-room
    ventilation and three-quarter exposure to sunlight while providing a yard to the front, side and rear.
    Another advantage over larger tenements was that they could be built in limited numbers as the need
    arose. On occasion the Drapers let contracts for building only one house at a time. "The framing of the
    double-tenement house of the Hopedale Machine Company will be commenced this week" (August 30,
    1882). Moreover, the time required for constructing one double-family house rarely exceeded one week
    from start to finish, minimizing delays in time for occupancy and making an easy job for small contractors
    like Chapman and Winn or Albertus C. Hussey and Son of Milford, who built most of the earlier units. On
    the other hand, it took Mead, Mason and Company two months in 1887 to complete a three-story, sixteen-
    room boardinghouse at the corner of Dutcher and Prospect streets. [Since there is no "corner of Dutcher
    and Prospect streets," I assume this must have been the Park House at the corner of Dutcher and
    Freedom streets.]

      If living in a company house subjected tenants to some form of social stigma, it was not because of the
    living arrangements at Hopedale. Double-family houses had existed from the very beginning, for the
    earlier community joined families in partitioned structures built in the 1840s. The type continued as a
    sensible way to build, given the need for economy in both construction time and materials. The Drapers
    also considered population density and the amount of land available for development, and laying out
    single-family houses as an alternative posed drawbacks. Detached houses spread development over a
    greater area, entailing a larger investment in site preparation, whereas a tighter arrangement of houses
    avoided this problem and left more open area for landscaping. It seems reasonable that considerations
    of housing density per development area went beyond questions of land economy and available space to
    the question of time and distance between factory and home. Without overcrowding, workers needed to
    be housed near the factories to permit them to walk between home and work or return at noon for a hot
    meal, yet be able to enjoy a yard and a degree of privacy. Model Company Town, pp. 205-207.

                                                                       National Register Nomination
                                             Draper Company Double Houses and Boardinghouses

                                                                            By Kathy Kelly Broomer

     Hopedale is distinguished for its extensive collection of double houses, built for employees of the
    Draper Company. While the company's residential construction was not limited to double houses and
    boardinghouses, and apparently included an undetermined number of single-family dwellings, the
    surviving double houses and boardinghouse convey the strongest historical associations with company
    housing in Hopedale Village.  At least forty-five different double house designs were built in the village
    from the 1860s thorough the 1910s. Many of these designs are variations of a smaller number of
    standard double house plans, which could be modified with regard to their exterior architectural
    ornament, the location of entries and porches, the use of window bays, etc. The exterior features of most
    of the forms present in the village are briefly described here. Approximately eight different forms were
    used in the period from the 1860s to ca. 1890. The majority of double house forms, however, were
    introduced between the late 1890s and the mid-1910s.  

     The earliest extant double houses in the area were built in the 1860s in the vicinity of the Draper plant. In
    general, these houses maintain their historic form, though exterior alterations have resulted in window
    replacement, the installation of artificial siding, and the removal or obscuring of historical ornament.
    Architects and builders have not been identified for most houses in this group, and more information is
    needed on plans.

     The double house at 63 - 65 Freedom Street (ca. 1860) at the corner of Prospect Street is an example of
    the side-gable form most commonly found in Hopedale. This 2½-story house, six bays by two bays with a
    pair of brick chimneys on the roof ridge, has a granite foundation, asbestos siding, and an asphalt
    shingle roof. Entries are paired in what appears to be a later 19th-century hip-roofed front porch addition
    spanning the second to fifth bays; the porch is now enclosed. Windows contain primarily 6/6 sash.
    Another form of early double house that is uncommon in the village is seen at 8?10 Union Street. (ca.
    1860s) Here, a 1½ -story, side-gabled wings flank a 2 ½ story, two-bay, gable-front block at the center of
    the façade; each wing incorporates a brick interior end-wall chimney on the ridge and an entry with a
    small porch. The central gable-front block features brick chimneys on each slope.

     Scattered double houses constructed from 1874 to ca. 1890 may be found in three general areas
    around the Draper plant; in the rectangular street grid northeast of the mill, on Freedom Street northwest
    of the mill, and on the present Cemetery Street, west of the mill. Their designs emphasize function. Few
    retain exterior ornament characteristic of a particular architectural style. Many have been altered with
    window sash replacement, installation of artificial siding, and enclosure of porches, though the historic
    building forms are still easily discerned. Six forms predominate.

     The first double house type from the 1874-ca. 1890 period is 1½  stories with a side-gable roof, four
    bays across and two bays deep, with a pair of brick chimneys on the roof ridge and a front porch over the
    paired entries at the center of the façade. Four double houses of this type were constructed in 1874, and
    located originally on the north side of a portion of Union Street that then extended from Hopedale Street
    west to the Hopedale Village Cemetery. According to Garner [Model Company Town], Chapman and Winn
    built the houses to architect's designs, probably drawn by Milford architect Fred Swasey. Garner's in-
    depth study of these houses shows that each measures 40 feet by 27 feet, resulting in two units with
    footprints measuring 20 feet across and 27 feet deep. The height from foundation to roof ridge is 20 feet.
    The houses were clad in clapboard originally; all have been re-sided. Each unit, intended for a family of at
    least three and no more than five people, encompassed 1,080 square feet. The living room spanned the
    front of the house, and the dining room, and a kitchen were placed to the rear on the first floor. There were
    two bedrooms on the second floor, one at the front and one at the rear. Front porches were added in 1887
    during an upgrade. All four houses were moved in 1907 due to the expansion of the Draper plant and
    subsequent removal of the Union Street connection over the Mill River. Three of the double houses are on
    Freedom Street. (113-115, 121-123, and 129-131 Freedom Street) and the fourth is at 19-21 Cemetery
    Street. All four houses now have cut-stone foundations that date to the 1907 move. The house at 129 -
    131 Freedom Street has sustained the greatest amount of alteration and is now a full two stories in
    height.

     A pair of square eave windows located over the entries at the center of the façade is the hallmark of the
    second and third types of double houses built during the 1874-ca. 1890 period. These 1½ -story side-
    gabled double houses are six bays across and two bays deep on a granite foundation. There are
    minimal exterior differences between the two types. Historic window sash, where it survives, is in a 2/2
    configuration. One type of double house, which is found in the street grid northeast of the plant, has a pair
    of brick chimneys located just behind the roof ridge, a wide frieze at the eaves, and ornamental detailing
    at the paired entries. A well-preserved example is at 39-41 Prospect Street (ca. 1885) which includes
    gable returns, a wide plain frieze, a pair of square eave windows, eave brackets, and a single shed-
    roofed door hood over both entries that is supported by brackets. Windows originally contained 2/2 sash.
    Other examples of this type appear at 1-3 Hopedale Street (ca. 1885), which has a Colonial Revival-style
    entry surround with full-length sidelights at each door, and 35-37 Prospect Street (ca. 1885), which
    retains the shed-roofed door hood on replacement supports. A similar double house, also with square
    eave windows over the entries, is distinguished by two chimneys on, rather than behind, the roof ridge,
    and hop-roofed porches at the paired entries. Examples of this type are found on Cemetery Street, west of
    the Draper plant; 1-3 Cemetery Street (ca. 1890), 2-4 Cemetery Street (ca. 1890), 5-7 Cemetery Street (ca.
    1890), 6-8 Cemetery Street (ca. 1885), 9-11 Cemetery Street (ca. 1890), and 10-12 Cemetery Street (ca.
    1885). Another example is located at 16-18 Union Street (ca. 1885) in the street grid northeast of the mill
    complex.

     The fourth double house form from the 1874-ca. 1890 period is also the most highly ornamented. This
    type of house was built in the street grid northeast of the plant. The 1½ -story type has a center-gable
    (also known as a cross-gable) roof, a stone foundation, and is six bays across on the main block and
    approximately three bays deep. There is a single brick chimney at the ridge of the center gable and two
    chimneys on the rear slope of the main block. A side-gabled lateral projection, one bay across and one
    bay deep, is set back from the façade on either side of the main block and effectively extends the façade
    of the building to eight bays across. If the façade as viewed from the street is considered eight bays
    across, the principal entries to each unit are located in the second and seventh bays, and the secondary
    entries are located in the first and eighth bays beneath shed-roofed side porches. Most of the porches
    have been enclosed. The houses tend to retain their original 2/2 wood sash. Intact ornament on these
    Victorian eclectic double houses includes oversized brackets supporting shed-roofed hoods over the
    principal entries, and brackets at the eaves. The best-preserved example is 12-14 Union Street (ca.
    1875), which also retains oversized decorative trusses, a Stick-style feature, in the gable ends. The
    trusses apparently have been removed from other examples of this house type. Another well-preserved
    example is 3-5 Social Street (ca. 1875), which retains one shed-roofed side porch that has not been
    enclosed. More examples of the form are found at 8 Peace Street (ca. 1875), 19-21 Dutcher Street (ca.
    1875), and 49-51 Dutcher Street (ca. 1875).

      Double houses of the fifth type were likely constructed in the early 1880s. Examples are seen at 90-92
    Freedom Street, 94-96 Freedom Street, 98-100 Freedom Street, 110-112 Freedom Street, and 36-38
    Prospect Street. These are large houses, each 2½ stories on a stone foundation, with a side-gabled roof
    and a pair of tall corbelled chimneys at the roof ridge. The façade of each building is six bays on the first
    floor, with entries in the first and sixth bays, and four bays on the second floor. Each building is roughly
    two bays deep, and each side elevation displays two square windows in the stair hall. Hip-roofed front
    porches survive at the entry of each house; all porches have been enclosed. Original window sash,
    where it survives, is 2/2 wood.

     The sixth group of double houses from the 1870s-1880s period were built in 1889. Examples include
    109-111 Freedom Street, 117-119 Freedom Street, and 133-135 Freedom Street. These 1½ -story
    buildings are four bays across and two bays deep, with entries paired at the center beneath an entry
    porch. The house at 125-127 Freedom Street has a shed-roofed front porch; the others have a hipped
    porch. The porches have been screened or enclosed with siding and sash. There is some surviving
    historic window sash in a 2/2 configuration. These double houses were located originally on the south
    side of a portion of Union Street that then extended from Hopedale Street west to the Hopedale Village
    Cemetery. On the opposite side of Union Street were the four houses built in 1874 by Chapman and
    Winn. Together, the eight double houses were known as Union Row. With the expansion of Draper plant
    in 1907, all eight buildings were moved to their present locations, seven on Freedom Street and one on
    Cemetery Street. The seven houses that were moved to Freedom Street were arranged in a single row,
    with the 1874 and 1889 houses alternating, and have come to be known as the "seven sisters." Garner's
    study notes that the front porches on the 1889 houses are original and the interior plans of those houses
    are similar to those of the houses constructed fifteen years earlier.

      In addition to the double houses, another significant example of company housing built in Hopedale
    Village during this period is the boarding house later known as Hopedale House, 37 Dutcher Street (last
    quarter 19th century). The larges building for company housing surviving in the village, the boardinghouse
    is one of three the Draper Company built for unmarried employees. In 1887, Meade, Mason and
    Company of Milford built a boardinghouse on Dutcher Street, possibly this one. The state's Public Safety
    inspection record shows that Milford architect Robert Allen Cook designed additions to the three
    boardinghouses for the Drapers in the late 1890s; at least two of those boardinghouses were on Dutcher
    Street. [The other one on Dutcher Street was the Park House at the corner of Dutcher and Freedom. The
    third was the Brae Burn Inn at the corner of Adin and Hopedale. The late 1890s was a period of great
    expansion for the Draper Company, due to the success of the Northrop loom, introduced in 1894.]

     The surviving Dutcher Street boardinghouse is 3½ stories on a raised basement with an L-shaped
    footprint and a cross-gable roof. The basement on the south elevation appears to be parged brick. The
    1899 remodeling produced the current front block, twelve bays across and three bays deep, with entries
    in the third and ninth bay; the rear wing is six to seven bays with an entry in the center bay. In plan, the
    boardinghouse has a long, center hallway running laterally. There were reception, parlor, and dining
    spaces on the first floor, along with four bedrooms; twelve bedrooms each on the second and third floors,
    and at least nine bedrooms plus additional storage areas in the attic. The bedrooms ranged in width
    from eleven feet to almost twenty-two feet, and measured approximately sixteen feet deep from the
    windows on the façade or rear wall to the center line in the hallway.

     Originally, the boardinghouse had a one-story projecting porch extending across most of the façade, and
    cross gables on the façade over the third bay at the northern end and over the ninth and tenth bays at the
    southern end. While the overall massing of the building is essentially intact, a number of alterations were
    made, including the addition of several typically 20th-century Colonial Revival-style features. Removal of
    the front porch, installation of pedimented porches on paired columns at the three entries, removal of the
    façade cross-gables, construction of shed-roofed and new gabled dormers, and replacement of original
    2/2 sash with 6/6 sash all likely date to a 1935 renovation of the building. The state's Public Safety
    records at the Massachusetts Archives show the architect of the 1935 renovation as C.R. Whitcher of
    Manchester, New Hampshire. Whichter also designed General Draper High School, 25 Adin Street. The
    boardinghouse is now clad with vinyl siding and is used for apartments.

     In Hopedale village, double houses built from the late 1890s to ca. 1916 are architect designed,
    stories, wood frame, and display greater variations in massing, roofline, and elevations than most of the
    Draper Company's earlier employee houses. Most are Colonial Revival or English (Tudor) Revival in
    style, with the influence of the Queen Anne style evident in the massing of certain turn-of-the century
    examples.  Most of these double houses were constructed in subdivisions designed by professional
    landscape architects, who applied the principles of contour planning to each subdivision layout in order to
    maximize an area's natural topography and integrate the various buildings with the landscape. The most
    notable examples of this approach are Bancroft Park, the Lake Point Group, the Upper Jones Road
    Group, and the Lower Jones Road Group.

     Bancroft Park (ca. 1896-1903) is a subdivision of thirty double houses with a site plan executed by
    landscape architect Warren Henry Manning. Set on a knoll, the subdivision is approached from Freedom
    Street and has an elliptical plan defined by a curving street, and smaller service roads located at the outer
    edges. The earliest dwellings, fourteen double houses at the center of the subdivision (houses with odd
    street numbers), are contained within the curve of the road and face outward. The later (even-numbered)
    houses were built at the periphery ca. 1900-1903 and face inward. Each unit encompasses
    approximately 1,500 to 1,700 square feet, and includes a parlor, dining room, and kitchen on the first floor
    and three bedrooms and a bathroom above. The units featured central heating, running water, and sewer
    hookup.

     Bancroft Park double houses are 2½ stories on a rubble stone foundation, with two chimneys, synthetic
    siding (usually asbestos shingle, covering original cypress shingle), and windows containing 6/1, 6/6,
    casement, or fixed sash. Dormers are hipped or gabled. Eleven forms of houses at Bancroft Park have
    been identified, and are described in general terms here. It should be noted that some of the forms are
    seen in both the original group of fourteen houses (ca. 1896-1897) and the later group (ca. 1898-1903).
    Two forms have T-shaped footprints, three have U-shaped footprints, and six have rectangular footprints.
    All have symmetrical facades, though considerable variety in the elevations is achieved through a mix of
    gable, cross-gable, gambrel, or cross-gambrel roofed elements. The paired cross-gable roofline of 72-
    74 Bancroft Park (ca. 1898-1903) is unique in this subdivision. As a group, the houses have entries
    paired at the center of the façade, spaced more widely apart, or placed on the side elevations and
    shielded with porches. All houses have entry porches, either integral or projecting from the façade. Most
    porches have been enclosed. Traces of Queen Anne-inspired design are evident, such as the cut-away
    bays in houses of the same type, as 11-13 Bancroft Park (ca. 1898-1903), and the decorative half-
    timbering and bargeboards evident in the examples such as 59-61 Bancroft Park (ca. 1896-1897). As a
    whole, however, the subdivision is largely Colonial Revival in style, and encompasses the best collection
    of turn-of-the-century Colonial Revivals in Hopedale.

      With the construction of Bancroft Park, the Draper Company began to amass a collection of stock plans
    that were reused in subsequent developments of employee houses. The Bancroft Park houses were
    designed by several architects under contract to the Draper firm: Edwin J. Lewis, Jr., J. Williams Beal,
    Walker & Kimball, and Peabody & Stearns, all of Boston, and Robert Allen Cook of Milford. Cook also
    supervised the construction of the inner-loop houses, which were completed and occupied by 1897, and
    tailored the plans of the outer-loop houses (ca. 1900-1903) to meet site plan requirements. As
    demonstrated in the Hopedale inventory, twenty-seven double houses built on Dutcher Street, Progress
    Street, Lake Street, Hope Street, Peace Street, Prospect Street and Union Street are similar in form to
    double house designs introduced at Bancroft Park.

     The next area of concentrated double house development in Hopedale Village is the Lake Point Group
    (ca. 1910-1912). This subdivision of thirty-one double houses (sixty-two units total) covers Soward Street,
    Progress Street, and Lake Street, the latter occupying a small peninsula on the western shore of the
    millpond. Landscape architect Arthur Shurtleff designed the site plan for Lake Street, which is known to
    have existed on paper as early as 1904. (Garner, p. 157) The Lake Point Group includes at least two
    double houses that date to the 1890s. Progress Street, a curving roadway, is the primary artery through
    the area, providing two points of access from Freedom Street. The design of Lake Street and placement
    of houses there are particularly noteworthy. This curving roadway traces the periphery of the peninsula
    and houses are placed at the center, oriented toward the water. The siting of buildings here maximized
    the public access to the water and protected the shoreline by precluding any "back yard" conditions (e.g.,
    hen houses, clotheslines, ash dumps, etc.) at the water's edge that could spoil the appearance of either
    the residential area or the pond.

     The Hopedale inventory reports that with the exception of 1-3 and 5-7 Soward Street, most historic
    buildings in the Lake Point Group were built in ca. 1910-1912. The house at 1-3 Soward (ca. 1895) and 5-
    7 Soward (ca. 1895) revive a utilitarian design used in the early 1880s on neighboring Freedom Street. A
    similar, Colonial Revival-style variation of this side-gabled double house with rectangular footprint is
    elsewhere on the same street, at 2-4 Soward Street (ca. 1910-1912) and 6-8 Soward Street (ca. 1910-
    1912).

     The double houses built ca. 1910-1912 are 2½ stories on a rubblestone foundation, with two chimneys,
    synthetic siding (usually asbestos shingle, covering original cypress shingles and often, half timbering),
    and windows containing 6/1, 6/6, casement, or fixed sash. Dormers are hipped or gabled. Fourteen
    forms of double houses have been identified in the Lake Point Group and are described in general terms
    here. One form has a T-shaped footprint, five have U-shaped footprints, and eight have rectangular
    footprints. All have symmetrical facades, though considerable variety in the elevations is achieved through
    a mix of gable, cross-gable, gambrel, or cross-gambrel roofed elements. Entries on these houses tend
    to be in one of three locations: paired at the center of the façade, spaced more widely apart in the end
    bays of the façade, or placed on the side-elevation and shielded with porches. All houses have entry
    porches, either integral of projecting from the façade. Most porches have been enclosed.

     As shown in the Hopedale inventory, ten double houses in the Lake Point Group were built ca. 1910-
    1912 from eight designs apparently reused from the Bancroft Park development. They are 3-4 Lake
    Street, J. Williams Beal, architect, 7-8 Lake Street, Beal, 9-10 Lake Street, Edwin J. Lewis, Jr., architect, 17-
    18 Lake Street, Lewis, 15-16 Lake Street, Lewis, 17-18 Lake Street, Walker & Kimball, architect, 10-12
    Progress Street, 14-16 Progress Street, 35-37 Progress Street, and 46 Progress Street/136 Freedom
    Street. These ten houses include most of the English Revival designs in the Lake Point development,
    retaining decorative bargeboards and half-timbering in the gable ends, bands of multi-pane or diamond
    pane window sash, and cut-away window bays.

     The Lake Point Group introduced five new house forms to Hopedale between ca. 1910 and ca. 1912, as
    shown in the Hopedale inventory. Two forms, seen at 1-2 Lake Street, Peabody & Stearns, architect, and
    11-12 Lake Street (ca. 1910-1912, Robert Allen Cook, architect) are multi-gabled buildings with U-shaped
    footprints reminiscent of the Queen Anne-inspired designs first seen at Bancroft Park. Three other house
    forms seen principally on Progress Street are Colonial Revival in style. These forms have rectangular
    footprints, symmetrical facades, and a pair of chimneys at the roof ridge. The form seen at 19-21
    Progress Street and 30-32 Progress Street is somewhat unusual in Hopedale and features pedimented
    gable entry porches on the side (gable end) elevations; the porches are oriented parallel, rather than
    perpendicular to the street. The form seen at 26-28 Progress Street, 27-29 Progress Street, 34-36
    Progress Street, 39-41 Progress Street and 42-44 Progress Street is very similar to the prototypes built
    ca. 1895 at 1-3 Soward and 5-7 Soward and in the 1880s on Freedom Street. Robert Allen Cook was
    likely involved in the construction, and probably also the design, of these houses. The most updated
    version of this house includes gabled projecting entry porches rather than the hipped porches of the
    earlier versions, paired windows on the first floor front on each unit rather than the single windows seen
    earlier, and on the side elevations, slight overhangs above the first floor and second floor. A variation of
    this form has the entries paired at the center of the façade under a hipped roof porch, as seen at 23-25
    Progress Street, 38-40 Progress Street, and 43-45 Progress Street. The last double house form
    introduced in the Lake Point Group is a side gabled house with projecting cross-gambrel roof at the
    center of the façade, two bay windows below the gambrel, and entries in the side elevations. The entries
    have projecting porches with oversized gable roofs oriented parallel to the street, columned supports,
    and solid balustrades. This form is seen at 5-6 Lake Street.

      All of the houses in the Lake Point Group, like those of Bancroft Park, were termed "first class" dwellings
    by the company, which implied the largest size of company-built, six-room house (1,500-1700 square feet
    per unit) and the highest grade of interior finishes. Plans for three of the Lake Point houses were
    published in The Architectural Review in 1916. J. Williams Beal designed a pair of houses with side hall
    plans as seen at 3-4 Lake Street, a plan that was reused from Bancroft Park. The side hall opened onto
    the parlor at the front outer corner of the house and the dining room at the center (with window on the side
    elevation) before ending in the kitchen occupying the rear of the house. Upstairs, two bedrooms were
    located side by side at the front of the house, the third bedroom occupied the rear outer corner, and the
    bathroom occupied the rear inner corner near the top of the stairs. Another design reused from Bancroft
    Park was 15-16 Lake Street. In this plan, architect Edwin J. Lewis, Jr. positioned the entry, entry porch,
    and hall on the side elevation of each house. The parlor, complete with a bay window, occupied the front
    outer corner of the house, the dining room occupied the front inner corner near the party wall, and the
    kitchen was at the rear. Upstairs, there were two bedrooms at the front of the house and one bedroom at
    the rear. The bathroom occupied the rear inner corner, next to the party wall. Finally, the house at 11-12
    Lake Street, designed by Robert Allen Cook, introduced a new plan. Here, a stir hall positioned laterally
    with a dog-leg stair occupied the front outer corner or the house, behind the piazza or porch. The bay-
    windowed parlor occupied the front of the house next to the party wall with the dining room directly behind
    it, and the kitchen occupied the rear outer corner. On the second floor, there was a small room at the top
    of the stairs, plus one bedroom at the front, and two more bedrooms with a bathroom at the rear.

     In addition to the Lake Point Group, the Draper Corporation built two other double house developments
    in the 1910s; the Upper Jones Group and the Lower Jones Group. Unlike the earlier house clusters,
    these two subdivisions were located farther from the Draper plant, to the northeast and north,
    respectively. Buildings in both subdivisions are either Colonial Revival or English Revival in style. The
    Hopedale inventory shows that at least fourteen double houses built on Lower Jones Road, Inman Street,
    Northrop Street, Oak Street, Maple Street, Jones Road, Hope Street, and Cemetery Street are similar in
    form to house designs introduced in the Lake Point Group.

     The Upper Jones Group (ca. 1913) is a subdivision of thirty-four double houses adjacent to the Milford
    town line. Landscape architect Arthur Shurtleff designed the site plan, solving the problem of situating
    houses on what may be considered the steepest gradient in the Hopedale Village. The site plan radiates
    north, west, and south from the intersection of four streets: Freedom Street and Williams Street, both
    existing roads into Milford; Northrop Street, improved with paving in 1907), and Jones Road, newly
    constructed for this subdivision. Two curving roads, Oak Street and Maple Street, break up the land and
    provide additional building lots east and west of Jones Road. Architect Robert Allen Cook designed at
    least seven of the twelve new designs introduced with the construction of the Upper Jones Group.

     All historic buildings in the Upper Jones Group were built ca. 1913. All houses are 2 ½ stories on a
    rubblestone foundation, with two chimneys, synthetic siding (usually asbestos shingle, covering original
    cedar shingle and often, half-timbering), and windows containing 6/1, 6/6, casement, or fixed sash.
    Dormers are hipped or gabled. Fifteen forms of double houses have been identified in the Upper Jones
    Group and are described in general terms here. Three forms have a T-shaped footprint, one has a U-
    shaped footprint, ten have rectangular footprints, and one has a roughly L-shaped footprint. All have
    symmetrical facades, though considerable variety in the elevations is achieved through a mix of gable,
    cross-gable, gambrel, or cross-gambrel roofed elements. Main blocks are usually four bays by two bays.
    Two types of roof forms, seen for the first time in Hopedale in the houses of this subdivision, are the
    clipped gable (or jerkin-head) roof and a modified gable-on-hip roof. The clipped gable roof, though
    typically a feature of Colonial Revival-style buildings, is here seen on English Revival-style double
    houses. The modified gable-on-hip roof is essentially a side-gabled house in which a small pent roof
    closes the gable on the side elevations. Entries on the Upper Jones houses tend to be in one of three
    locations: paired at the center of the façade, spaced more widely apart in the end bays of the façade, or
    placed on the side elevations and shielded with porches. All houses have entry porches, either integral or
    projecting from the façade. Most porches have been enclosed. More information is needed on interior
    plans.

     Three double house forms present in the Upper Jones Group are slight modifications of forms
    introduced in earlier developments. The design at 19-21 Oak Street is rectangular in footprint, with a
    steeply pitched, asymmetrical, side-gable roof (also described as a "reverse saltbox"), prominent cross-
    gambrel element centered on the façade, and end-bay entries beneath integral porches. This design is a
    variation of a cross-gambrel house form seen at Bancroft Park. In addition, according to the Hopedale
    inventory, two house forms in the Upper Jones Group were seen in the earlier Lake Point development.
    One example is the house at 35-37 Northrop Street, with its multi-gabled roof suggestive of earlier Queen
    Anne-inspired forms. In another example, 9-11 Maple Street, the cross-gambrel design with prominent
    center gambrel and bay windows below, is decidedly Colonial Revival.

      Robert Allen Cook designed at least eight of the twelve house designs utilized in the Upper Jones
    Group. These designs were known as Cook's Designs A, B, C, E, L, M, N, and O. Designs A, B, D, and E
    were considered "second class" dwellings, five or six-room houses with a total floor area ranging from
    1,200 to 1,360 square feet per unit. Interior wood trim was generally stained and varnished, and walls
    were papered. Design A, seen at 14-16 Oak Street, features a side-gabled roof with clip gable,
    overhanging eaves, and bargeboards and half-timbering in the gable ends of the main block, dormers,
    and porches. In plan, it is a six-room house (three bedrooms) with a dog-leg stair in the stair hall located
    at the front outer corner. Design B is a cross-gable form with overhanging eaves, bargeboards, hip-roofed
    entry porches on the side elevations, and a slight overhang of the second story. An example is 15-17 Oak
    Street, a six-room house (three bedrooms) with a dog-leg stair located at the rear outer corner.

     Cook designs L, M, N, and O were considered "third class" dwellings, with five or six-room houses
    having a total floor area ranging from 1,100 t0 1,357 square feet per unit. In six-room houses of this type,
    the plan was arranged so that one first floor room could be used as either a dining room or a bedroom.
    Interior wood finishes were left in a natural state or painted, rather than stained and varnished as in the
    "second class" dwellings. The comparatively unusual corner house at 24 Freedom Street and Northrop
    Street combines two Cook designs, Design C for the unit at the south side of the house, and Design D for
    the unit on the north side. Both units are five-room houses. Design L also is a clipped gable house, with
    a projecting cross-gable centered on the facade and entries beneath gabled porches in the end bays; an
    example is 117-119 Jones Road. Designs M and N are similar to one another from the exterior, and also
    have clipped gable roofs and half-timbering in the gable ends. These houses, however, have projecting
    hipped porches over the entries. In Design M, exemplified by 105-107 Jones Road, the clipped gable end
    is the central feature of the facade, flanked by entries on the long side elevations. Here, the houses have
    five-room plans, wherein the living rooom occupies the front of the house, the kitchen occupies the rear,
    and the stair hall is positioned laterally between them with an entry on the side elevation of the house. In
    Design N, represented by 106-108 Jones Road, the long elevation is the façade, where the entries are
    paired at the center. This design also is a five-room house, with three bedrooms upstairs. Finally, Design
    O is a side-gambrel form with projecting cross-gable center on the façade. Here, however, entries are
    located on the side elevations beneath shed-roofed porches. Design O is a five-room house as well.

       At least thirteen double houses built on Freedom Street, Northrop Street, Inman Street, Lower Jones
    Road, and Hope Street are similar in form to designs introduced in the Upper Jones Group. A majority of
    these similar houses are located in the Lower Jones Group (1913-1916), which was developed at the
    same time as the Upper Jones Group. On Inman Street, there is one house of the Cook Design A plan,
    49-51 Inman Street (ca. 1913) and three houses of Cook Design L plan, at 14-16 Inman (ca. 1916), 33-35
    Inman (ca. 1916), and 45-47 Inman (ca. 1913). At least five other houses in the same area also resemble
    double houses in the Upper Jones Group.

     The Lower Jones Group is a subdivision of twenty-four houses (forty-eight units) on a ridge parallel to
    and immediately east of Dutcher Street. The northernmost development of double houses in the village
    and the town, this subdivision covers Inman Street and Lower Jones Road. No landscape architect has
    been identified to date, and the layout of the streets in a simple grid suggests that a landscape architect
    was not involved in this project. The architect for the five new house forms introduced in this subdivision
    has not been identified.

     The Hopedale inventory shows that each historic building in the Lower Jones Group was built either ca.
    1913 or ca. 1916. All houses are 2½ stories on a rubblestone foundation, with two chimneys. Originally
    clad in cedar shingles wit cedar trim, the houses were covered with asbestos shingles in the 1940s or
    early 1950s by the Draper Corporation. Windows contain 6/1, 6/6, casement, or fixed sash. Dormers are
    hipped, gabled, or shed-roofed. All together, eleven forms of houses have been identified in the Lower
    Jones Group and are described in general terms here. One form has a T-shaped footprint, one has an L-
    shaped footprint, and nine have rectangular footprints. All except the houses on corner lots have
    symmetrical facades. Main blocks range from four to five bays by two bays to six by two bays; this
    development introduces some dew house forms with facades that are much broader than what was
    seen previously.

     The presence of various roof types lends variety to the subdivision, with cross-gable and cross-gambrel
    roofs predominating. The clipped gable (jerkin head) and gable- on-hip rooflines introduced in the Upper
    Jones Group development also are seen here. Particularly noteworthy, however, are three new rooflines
    not seen previously: the Prairie-like hipped roof with wide overhanging eaves, seen at 10-12 Inman Street
    (ca. 1916); the hipped roof with  paired projecting gables, wide overhanging eaves, and oversized
    brackets on the facade, seen at 38-40 Inman Street (ca. 1916) and elsewhere. Entries on these houses
    tend to be in one of two locations; spaced more widely apart in the end byas of the facade or placed on
    the side elevations and shielded with porches. The house at 5-7 Inman Street (ca. 1916) is the one form
    in this development with entries paired at the center. All houses have entry porches, either integral or
    projecting from the facade. Most porches have been enclosed.

      The Lower Jones Group is the last double house development constructed in Hopedale Village. Five
    new house forms were introduced her, among them the L-shaped, cross-gambrel, Colonial Revival-style
    form seen on the following corner lots: 4 Inman-4Beech, 26 Inman-5 Elm Street, and 32 Inman-6 Elm
    Street. This form displays a single brick chimney at the juncture of the two wings, oversized shed
    dormers, and hip-roofed porches at the entries on the gambrel ends. Similar examples exist on Dutcher
    Street.

     Other early 20th-century double house forms were introduced in Hopedale Village beyond those in the
    developments described above. Dutcher Street northwest of Northrop Street, a tree-lined avenue with a
    mix of single-family and double houses, displays the best collection of double house forms not seen in
    the four double house developments. Preservation Services, Inc. assigned a date of ca. 1910 to these
    double houses. Constructed about the same time as the Upper Jones Group and the Lower Jones
    Group, these houses are generally Colonial Revival in style, 2½ stories on rubblestone foundations, with
    asbestos or vinyl replacement siding. Entries tend to be located in the end bays, with integral or
    projecting porches. Historic window sash, where it survives, is generally 2/1 or 6/1 wood.

     Like the other Hopedale double house forms, these early 20th-century houses have symmetrical
    facades, though in some cases the facades are much wider than what is seen elsewhere in the village. A
    discussion of four forms follows. Each unit in the house at 131-133 Dutcher Street is four bays across,
    resulting in and eight-bay façade. Paired gambrels oriented to the street are over bays 1 to 3 and bays 6
    to 8. There is a hipped-roof connector over the two center bays. Entries are located between bays 3 and 4
    and bays 5 and 6. Box bay windows with shed roofs on the façade, pent roofs over the second-story
    façade windows, and hipped dormers at the attic are typical features of the Colonial Revival style.
    Variations include the cross-gambrel double house with central cross-gambrel as seen at 5-7 Hope
    Street, 123-125 Dutcher Street, and elsewhere; these examples have projecting hip-roofed porches with
    entries set perpendicular to the street in a central enclosed bay. Another Colonial Revival double house
    form is the side-gambrel seen at 76-78 Dutcher Street and 173-175 Dutcher Street. The six-bay by three
    bay double house has two brick chimneys at the roof ridge; massive cross-gabled bays overhanging the
    first floor; single, paired, and tripartite windows on the façade; and entry bays in the side elevations with
    shed-roof porches. Originally, there were decorative brackets beneath the overhanging gabled bays.

     A wide façade and more complicated roofline is seen at 80-82 Dutcher Street. Each unit is roughly three
    bays across and two bays deep. The two-bay main block has two chimneys and a steeply pitched, side-
    gable roof with flared eaves. Similar rooflines are seen on the gabled dormers. Two-story lateral wings,
    each about two bays across and including a double house entry in the inner bay, have gable-on-hip roofs,
    shed dormers, and shed-roofed projecting porches, now enclosed. Other fenestration includes tripartite
    windows on the first floor of the main block for each unit, and bay windows supported by oversized
    brackets above. Similar brackets appear at the porch entrances. Its steeply pitched, gable-front roof, with
    long slopes sweeping to first floor integral porches characterizes the double hours from seen at 177-179
    Dutcher Street and 96-98 Dutcher Street. This type features a pair of two-tiered bay windows centered on
    the façade, overhangs on the upper stories, cross-gabled projections on the side elevations with cup-
    away bays on the first floor, and shed dormers.
                          
                     
Bancroft Park, c. 1900              White City               The Seven Sisters          Lake Street Area     

                       
Hopedale Architecture          Garages (Car garages for people living in Draper houses.)

                                           
Draper Menu               Buildings Menu            Now and Then Menu           

                                                       
Origins of Street and Place Names                   HOME