The Draper and Dutcher Temples

     In 1816, Ira Draper invented an improved type of temple (shown at top of page), a
    device that kept the cloth stretched to the desired degree as it was woven in a loom.
    Eventually his son, Ebenezer, obtained the patent. Ebenezer and his wife, Anna, were
    among the original members of the Hopedale Community. The temple became one of a
    number of products manufactured in the little shop at the Freedom Street dam on the
    Mill River. It was, however, the most financially successful product. In 1853, Ebenezer's
    brother, George, moved to Hopedale and joined the Community. By 1856, the temple
    was selling so well that Ebenezer and George owned three-quarters of the stock in the
    Community. They decided to withdraw their investment, which resulted in the failure of
    the Community. Over the next several decades, the company the Draper brothers
    formed produced and sold many different parts for spinning and weaving machinery,
    and in 1894 they sold their first looms.

    Here's what the official Draper history has to say on the matter:

    In 1816 Ira was granted a patent on an improved fly-shuttle hand loom. It was superior
    in many ways to the hand looms then in use, but the advent of the power loom made it
    inadvisable to push its manufacture and sale.

    A feature of his loom patent, however, was the fact that it covered the invention of the
    first self-acting loom temple, which proved as timely as his loom was untimely. It was
    attached to the loom breast beam, held the cloth over a revolving star wheel, and was
    practically automatic. The temples in use at that time were of the stretcher type and had
    to be taken off and readjusted so often they required a considerable part of the
    weaver's time and labor.

     Mr. Daper's temple, by relieving the weaver of this time-killing labor, greatly increased
    the product of the new power looms and enabled the weaver to run two looms instead of
    one. For fifty years, or until England began to use self-acting temples, it established and
    kept the number of looms per weaver in American mills above that of their English
    cousins.

     Ira Draper's invention of the temple was notable in textile history for several reasons. It
    was the second invention in the textile field by an American. Eli Whitney's cotton gin was
    the first. It came at a time to contribute powerfully to the successful establishment of the
    factory system in America. It was outstandingly notable because it became the
    foundation of the business of Draper Corporation which through five generations of
    Drapers has given the American textile industry hundreds of machines and devices that
    have marked the progress of cloth-making in this country. William H. Chase, Five
    Generations of Loom Builders, pp. 4 - 5.

     A little further on, Chase continues with the next development in temples:

     In 1854 he [George Draper] bought an interest in the new Dutcher temple, then made
    in North Bennington, Vt., the first temple with cylindrical rolls and the first to be
    reciprocated by the lay. The business was moved to Hopedale two years later, when the
    inventor joined the two Draper brothers in the partnership of W.W. Dutcher & Co.
    Chase, p. 7.

     The photos below show the Dutcher temple. The temples are circled in red in the first
    two pictures. The real working part, the temple roll, is out of sight. It's a small, rotating
    cylinder with many projecting points which engage the cloth as it passes by. You can
    see the roll in the fourth picture and in a page from a Dutcher catalog at the bottom.
    Temple rolls were produced in an area of the shop called the roll room. Only women
    were employed for this job. (Starting during World War I women were hired for other
    jobs in Drapers, but up until then, the roll room was the only department where they
    were allowed to work. Actually, so far I've been unable to find out in what year women
    were first hired to work in the roll room.)  Instead of patenting the process of inserting
    the teeth into the cylinder, Drapers kept it secret. The roll room was kept locked. Ira's
    temple was patented, but it seems that either the Ducher and later models or the
    process of manufacturing them, or both, weren't.

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     See Dutcher temples below.  The photo below the Dutcher catalog page shows the
    temple roll, the "heart of the temple."

The Draper temple

    Ira Draper,shown holding a loom temple in his left hand.
    This 1816 invention of his was the foundation of the
    Draper business. The portrait was given to the
    Hopedale Community House by the Gannett family.

    James Draper, son of Ira and brother of Ebenezer
    and George Draper, inherited his father's temple
    patent. Below is the first ad he placed for their
    sale. It was in the first issue of the Boston Daily
    Evening Transcript, July 24, 1830

    Photos of Dutcher temple rolls and box sent by Sarah
    Carr, White Sulphur Spring, West Virginia in June 2017.


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The Dutcher temple

    Warren Dutcher, originally of North Bennington, Vermont,
    in the 1850s invented a temple that was an improvement
    on the Draper temple. George Draper bought an interest
    in it, and in 1856, Dutcher moved to Hopedale where the
    business was eventually operated under the name,
    Dutcher Temple Company.

    The "Diamond D," which eventually was used
    as the Draper Corporation logo, was originally
    the Draper Temple Company trademark.

    A sign evidently from when the original Dutcher Temple Co
    building was replaced with a new shop..
Freedom Street
Social Street
Union Street

    The location of the Dutcher Temple Company shop can be seen in this
    drawing just below Social Street. At that time, Social and Union streets
    crossed Hopedale Street and continued a little further to the west. Those
    sections of them were later discontinued as the business of the Draper
    Company increased and they built more shops.